Artículos

Capacidad de denominación y categorización en una muestra de niños de Jardín de Infantes



Resumen

AA partir de la postulación del modelo del prototipo, dentro de la Psicología cognitiva se ha cuestionado la capacidad de los niños para realizar tareas semánticas que impliquen distintos niveles de inclusión. Actualmente, continúa en debate si durante el desarrollo se adquieren primero los conceptos del nivel básico o los del nivel superordinado. Por otro lado, continúa el debate en torno a si en la ontogenia se adquieren primero los conceptos y categorías correspondientes al dominio de seres vivos o al de objetos inanimados. Con el objetivo de explorar el desarrollo del conocimiento léxico-semántico, se realizó la prueba del cuarto excluido, propuesta por Luria (1984), en una muestra de 30 niños de Buenos Aires de clase media-alta que asisten a una escuela privada bilingüe. En dicha prueba el participante debe denominar tarjetas a color, luego extraer el estímulo que no se vincule semánticamente al resto del juego y, por último, denominar la categoría resultante. Los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con el modelo del prototipo, en donde los conceptos del nivel básico se adquieren con anterioridad a los del nivel superordinado. Se encontró también que seres vivos puntuó por arriba en las dos tareas de denominación.

Palabras clave:

capacidad, cognición, conceptualización, desarrollo infantil, Psicología del Desarrollo, Psicología del niño, Psicología Experimental

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